Statistical data by industry

Statistical data by industry

Situation with the water supply in urban areas.

Currently, there is a problem with the drinking water supplies in the cities of the republic.

According to the Agency for Construction and Housing and Public Utilities Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, as of January 1, 2011, water provision with centralized water supply for the urban population– is 82%.

In terms of access level to centralized water supply systems, the Republic of Kazakhstan yields developed countries, where this figure is 90–95%.

The total length of water supply networks in the cities of the republic is 27, 000.3 kilometers, of which distribution water supply networks is 18, 173.7 kilometers; at the same time, currently in the republic there are 2,188 kilometers of "ownerless” networks.

According to the Agency for Construction and Housing and Public Utilities Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan, the majority of water supply networks are in poor condition. Based on a normative term of the reliable operation worth 25 years, 36% of water supply networks are in operative condition, about 64% of the network need major repairs or complete replacement.

Basically, water supply networks were put into operation 25 — 40 years ago, and have unprotected inner surface (mostly steel and cast iron pipes). Therefore, due to ongoing corrosion, water pipelines and water supply networks are rapid wear and overgrowing, which reduces the capacity of water supply, increases the number of accidents, causes losses and deterioration of drinking-water quality.

As a result, an annual increase in the amount of water losses in water supply networks has been recorded. For example, in 2009 compared with 2004, the number of losses has been increased by 10.9%.

The use of budget funds for the implementation of measures to improve water supply, access to water supply services in the Republic has been increased by 5.3%, the number of accidents on the water supply networks in the republic compared to 2004, on the whole has been decreased by 15.8%.

In accordance with the Strategic Development Plan of the Republic of Kazakhstan until 2020, approved by the Presidential Order of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated February 1, 2010 #922, one of the strategic goals in the area of Housing and Public Utilities is to bring the level of normative losses during transportation of water – up to 19% by 2015, and up to 15% – by 2020.

Thus, according to the Association "Kazakhstan Su Arnasy”, the average national level of actual commercial (in excess of industry norms) losses in the water balance of urban water supply enterprises are from 15 to 25%. From which, it follows that for 2 years it is necessary to carry out a great job in the water supply sector — to eliminate in excess of industry norms losses, then reduce the level of normative losses by 2–3% to achieve the determined indicators of the Strategic Plan.

At the same time, it is necessary to understand that even 100% replacement of pipes of water supply networks with the new ones, without the organization of a full meters record of water from the water intake from the sources to consumers, will not result in liquidation of above-standard (commercial) losses, will not provide a reliable water balance of operating businesses.

namely, reliable accounting data for water at all levels of its distribution and consumption, forms the water balance of an enterprise, which analysis in turn shows the level of reduction or increase of water loss during transportation..

Just only the organization of quality accounting for water may allow to reduce above-standard losses in the water balance by 2–3 times.

Performing obligations on acquiring and installing individual water meters (IWM) in the absence of available funds, operating businesses often did not pay attention to the accuracy category of the purchased and installed devices. A primary criteria in selecting was their price, as a result, the instrumentation pool of commercial accounting for water is represented by the cheap devices of low accuracy category A and B.

The modern technologies existing in the world regarding the organization of archivation of indicated values of water consumption are combined with the possibilities of remotely reading by a stationary or portable equipment of subscriber services that provides a framework for the implementation of automated water meters at the enterprises..

A transfer to the new technologies of water record has been already started by the operating water supply businesses in Astana, Almaty, Shymkent and Karaganda, basically, while determining technical requirements to connect new consumers to the water supply systems.

Situation with the water supply in the rural area.

In 2010, implementation of a branch-wise program "Drinking-Water” for 2002 – 2010, approved by Resolution of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan dated January 23, 2002 #93, has been accomplished.

The events of this Program were aimed at achievement of the following ratios in terms of provision of the rural population with the drinking-water:

increase of a number of population utilizing water from the centralized sources of water supply, total in the country by 20 – 25%;

increase of a level of water supply, in total by 80 %.

All in all, within the framework of the Program, 12,935 kilometers of water pipes and drinking water supply have been built up, reconstructed and thoroughly repaired; water supply has been improved in 3,449 settlements, with more than 3.5 million people in rural areas.

A number of rural population utilizing imported water in the period under analysis, has been decreased more than 6 times and was 71.1 thousand people. The state of water pipes that did not meet sanitary norms, has been reduced from 336 to 133 units.

Despite some positive results of the Program implementation, the problem of water supply to the rural population remains so far.

So, according to the Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan as of January 1, 2011, accessibility to the centralized water supply in the rural settlements (hereinafter – RS) has been increased by 13,5 % and was 42,5 %.

In addition, according to Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan, out of a total number of RS (6,943) – 3,592 RS with more than 3 million people, or 40% of the total rural population, are referred to the non-supply of centralized drinking water (problematic). Such RS are grouped by 4 categories and provide in Table 1.

Table 1

Categories of RS that are not provided by the centralized drinking water supply

No Categories of RS Number of RS Unit weight, in %
1. Utilizing the imported water 134  3,7 
2. Requiring connection to the group water pipes 386  10,7 
3. Group water pipes (reconstruction and construction) 114  3,2 
4. With decentralized water supply system 2958  82,4 

In general, while implementing the Program "Drinking Water” for

2002 – 2010, the cases of inefficient utilization of budget funds, poor construction and reconstruction of water conducts, breach of terms of performance of repair and construction works and failure to supply quality drinking water were registered.

The main reason for this was a lack of the system approach and proper interaction of central and local executive bodies while planning the works on development and modernization of the water supply systems.

Funding from the republican and local budgets not always has been made in accordance with the priorities. As a result, in some cases, facilities, which have been built up at the expense of considerable budget money, stood idle, whereas the other ones due to the lack of financing, have been reconstructed only by small portions.


Also, an analysis of the results of program implementation "Drinking Water” for 2002 – 2010 indicates that one of the hindering factors in the issue of drinking water supply for the rural population, was a lack of operation enterprises or their insufficient material and technical equipment.

Situation with the wastewater disposal in the urban area.

According to the Statistics Agency, in 2009, there are 186 wastewater disposal enterprises in the urban area with a total length of networks of 12,455.8 kilometers, of which 8,712 kilometers, or 70% are in need of repair.

The range of degree in connections to the infrastructure of wastewater disposal in the cities is very wide — from 12% in Ayagoz up to 98% in Satpayev. In the regional centers and cities of Astana and Almaty, 60–94% of the population is connected to the wastewater disposal systems. Many industrial cities, such as Ridder, Zyryanovsk, Karatau, Satpayev Zhezkazgan, and Zhanatas have a high level connection to the wastewater disposal system — 90%.

At the same time, the proportion of the total area of urban housing stock with the wastewater disposal system — is 73.4% in average in the republic.

In 39 towns and villages, treatment facilities are missing, respectively discharge of sewage waters is carried out without purification.

Out of the total amount of wastewater undergoing treatment, 64.0% are brought to the normative requirements, the remaining 36.0% of untreated sewage are discharged directly to the filtration fields, both in the city of Taraz, and to the storages — in Kokshetau, Uralsk, Petropavlovsk, and Kostanai

Many of the existing treatment plants have already developed their own operational resources and are in need of repair, the others — work overload, which leads to incompliance of wastewater treatment technology with the project data.

For example, in such regions as — Kyzylorda, Mangystau, North Kazakhstan, and East Kazakhstan, the percentage of insufficiently purified water ranges from 39% to 72%.

This indicates that the existing wastewater treatment facilities are overloaded.

Given that such storages for treated wastewater are often filled to the limit marks, there is a constant threat for water facilities and settlements, emergency dam breakout.

Also, due to depreciation of fixed assets of wastewater disposal networks, there is a high accident rate. So, in 2009, an accident rate of wastewater disposal networks in average in the republic amounted to from 0.2 to 29.5 accidents per 1 kilometer.

A significant volume of waste water of industrial enterprises flows directly into the municipal treatment facilities that are not designed for the treatment of industrial wastewater. Recently, discharges of detergents of foreign manufacture began to dominate in the domestic wastewater, which are difficult to clean and have a long period of preservation of adverse effects on the environment, and consequently pollute the water sources.

According to the Ministry of Environmental Protection, currently 50% of wastewater discharges of 43 large industrial enterprises do not meet the requirements, the concentration of pollutants in wastewater discharges into the wastewater disposal systems exceeds the maximum allowable rates. In general, depreciation of fixed assets of wastewater disposal systems in most of the settlements of the republic is 40–70%, and in some places reaches 100%.

The situation with the wastewater disposal in the rural area.

According to the Statistics Agency, in 2009,163 enterprises were functioning in the rural area, which had wastewater disposal networks with a total length of networks of 2,075.5 kilometers. At the same time, 1,452 kilometers are in need of repair.

The specific weight of the total area of rural housing stock with water discharge, in average in the republic is — 8.8% %.

Out of the total volume of wastewater in the rural areas, 45.4%, are purified up to the normative requirements, the remaining 54.6% — is raw sewage.

Previously, the construction of wastewater disposal facilities in the rural areas has been neglected, because the priority was the water supply. Wastewater disposal systems were built mainly in the district centers and larger towns. Moreover, disposal of sewage was implemented only from the administrative and business buildings, schools, hospitals and multi-storey buildings.

Currently, the exported (sanitary) waste disposal, sewage (driveable) systems are dominated in rural villages; is represented by a small percentage — in the range of 3–5%.

However, the sanitary condition of villages, given the upcoming costs of water supply, at the first stage, it would be possible to improve without a centralized wastewater disposal systems, by improving the local sewage treatment plants, septic tanks at the public and industrial facilities.

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